Finally, the clock. Basically, a clock is an "oscillator," or thing that is constantly changing. A general clock circuit merely turns true, then false, then true again, constantly, at a certain calibrated rate. The simplest clock would be a NOT gate that feeds back into itself, with the electricity slowed down by a resistor. I wouldn't exactly call it calibrated, but you get the idea. Normally, you'd use a quartz crystal that is cut to a certain sise that tends to resonate at a certain frequency when it has specific capacitors connected to it. These things are particularly reliable: usually less than 1 second off per day. Where things get complicated is, some circuits are faster than others, so some might be OK with a high clock rate, while others may not be. This presents potential problems.

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